TB is the leading killer of people living with HIV, causing a quarter of all AIDS-related deaths worldwide. People with HIV are more susceptible to developing active TB because of their weakened immune systems and are 21 to 34 times more likely to develop active TB someone not infected with HIV. Each disease fuels the progression of the other and TB has seriously undercut progress made in the response to AIDS. Without proper treatment, seven out of ten people living with HIV who develop TB will die.

There were an estimated 1.5 million TB deaths in 2013.  1.1 million among HIV-negative people and 360 000 among HIV-positive people.

There is a need for a fully integrated approach to fighting HIV/AIDS and TB. The World Health Organisation has recommended increased collaboration between HIV and TB programmes, including the routine screening of people with HIV for TB and vice versa.